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Japanese Dialects

The Ultimate Guide to Major Japanese Dialects

Japanese dialects

If you live in the United States, you’ve probably noticed that someone from New Jersey doesn’t speak the same way as someone from California. This is because of dialects, or forms of language developed and used in specific regions.

These dialects differ not only in accent but in vocabulary, grammatical structure, and slang (from “y’all” in the South to “hella” in Northern California).

The same is true in Japan. A majority of Japanese students are familiar with the type of Japanese spoken in, and north of, the Kanto region which contains Tokyo. But there are several other Japanese dialects to learn, each with many subsections.

If you’re planning a trip to Japan soon, don’t get caught unprepared! Here are some of the major Japanese dialects you can expect to encounter.

5 Major Japanese Dialects

Standard Japanese (Eastern Japanese, Tokyo-type Japanese)

Spoken in: Most of Japan (Hokkaido, Tohoku, and Kanto region; much of Chubu region)

Soon after Japan opened its borders in 1853, the country went through the Meiji Restoration, which united the nation as a major world power. Along with other advancements in society, a standard Japanese dialect was chosen—the one used in Yamanote, a district of Tokyo. Once technology brought about radio and TV broadcasts, this dialect spread quickly throughout the country.

Western Japanese (Kansai-ben)

Spoken in: (Kansai, Chugoku, and Shikoku regions; part of Chubu region)

Eastern and Western Japan have long been separated by differences of culture and dialect, similar to the Northern and Southern United States. Because of the geographical separation, a different type of speech developed over time in the old capital, Kyoto, and surrounding areas.

Western Japanese is known for its shortened words, much like southern American English – think of the southern drawl. Here are some examples:

Meaning Standard Japanese Western Japanese
Look Miru (見る) Mii, miyo (見い,見よ)
Wide Hiroi (広い) Hirō (広お)
Dropped Otoshita (落とした) Otoita (落といた)

Western Japanese also includes many words with modified syllables, as you can see here:

Meaning Standard Japanese Western Japanese
Paid Haratta (払った) Harōta (払おた)
Will not do Shinai (しない) Senu (せぬ)
To exist Iru (いる) Oru (おる)

Unique dialects within Western Japanese include Osaka-ben (spoken in Osaka) and Kyoto-ben (spoken in Kyoto). These two dialects are very similar, which makes it fairly easy for people from Kyoto and Osaka to speak to one another. The cities are only half an hour apart by train.

Kyushu Japanese

Spoken in: The island of Kyushu

Kyushu has long been an important part of Japan, especially as an ancient center of relations with China and Korea. Since it’s separated from the main island both culturally and geographically, it makes sense that a new dialect emerged here.

The Kyushu dialects differ so much from each other that it’s difficult to identify specific congruences between them. As a whole, there are many modified conjugation types, shortened words, and alternate words.

There are three unique dialects in Kyushu: Satsugu/Kagoshima, Hōnichi, and Hichiku. Each of these include their own sub-dialects.

  • Satsugu/Kagoshima: Southern Kyushu, mostly Kagoshima province
  • Hōnichi: Eastern Kyushu, including most of Oita prefecture
  • Hichiku: Western Kyushu, including Fukuoka (Hakata-ben) and Nagasaki (Nagasaki-ben)

SEE ALSO: How Long Does It Take To Learn Japanese?

Okinawa Japanese

Spoken in: The island of Okinawa

Some people joke that Okinawa isn’t really a part of Japan, and its controversial history (including annexation by Japan) implies as much. The island is home to several languages that UNESCO now considers endangered as Okinawans lean toward standard Japanese.

Okinawan Japanese borrows many words from standard Japanese, but they have different meanings. For example, “korosu” means “hit” in Okinawan Japanese and “kill” in Standard Japanese. Okinawan Japanese also borrowed some words from English ever since the Battle of Okinawa.

Whether or not Okinawan Japanese is actually a Japanese dialect is often debated, so comparing it to Japanese can be quite difficult. It might be safer to think of the two like Italian and Spanish—similar in many ways, but distinct.

Mixed Dialects

Spoken in: Parts of the Chubu prefecture

Since the borders between Eastern and Western Japan are superficial, the dialects tend to mix. This is most evident in areas of Chubu, where two dialects have meshed into something new.

Let’s look at Nagoka-ben, as Nagoya is Chubu’s largest city. Differences are subtler than those between standard and Western Japanese, but they are still obvious to anyone who speaks either dialect. This mostly manifests itself in slight contractions or conjugation modifications.

Meaning Standard Japanese Nagoya-ben
It gets smaller Chiisakunaru (小さくなる) Chiisanaru (小さなる)
I don’t sleep Nemasen(寝ません) Nesen (寝せん)
It was fun Tanoshikattayo (楽しかったよ) Tanoshikattani (楽しかったに)

Tackling Japanese Dialects

Considering the dizzying array of Japanese dialects, do you think your current Japanese skills are enough to get you through a trip to Japan without a hitch? If not, consider working with a Japanese tutor to study the dialects of the specific areas you’d like to visit. You’ll be glad you did when you’re able to understand Kansai-ben and Kagoshima-ben!

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Elaina RPost Author: Elaina R.
Elaina R. teaches singing in Ann Arbor, MI. She earned a Master of Music in Voice Performance from the University of Michigan. She is also proficient in multiple languages and speaks Japanese, English, Italian, and German.  Learn more about Elaina here!
japanese holidays

12 Japanese Holidays and Celebrations [Infographic]

japanese holidays

From January through December, there are many ways to participate in Japan’s special occasions. So if you’re taking Japanese lessons, make sure you get in on the fun! Mark your calendar, here are 12 Japanese holidays you should remember.

Ganjitsu – New Year’s Day

January 1st

People around the world celebrate New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day. In Japan, many businesses remain closed until the 3rd, and there are all types of parties and traditions.

Japanese people view each year as a fresh start—so you should leave your worries and troubles behind, and start the new year with joy, happiness, and a new perspective.

Kenkoku Kinen no Hi – National Foundation Day

February 11th

National Foundation Day is a historical holiday on the 11th of February. The holiday commemorates the formation of the nation. The National Flag is raised and the prime minister gives a speech; Japanese people show their national pride by waving their flags.

Hina Matsuri – Girl’s Festival

March 3rd

Parents wish their daughters success and happiness. Dolls and peach blossoms are displayed in many houses throughout Japan.

Shunbun No Hi – Spring / Vernal Equinox

March 20th / 21st

This national holiday welcomes the end of winter and the beginning of spring. It’s also a time to visit graves and honor your ancestors. It’s a favored holiday for farmers, who pray for an abundant harvest.

Showa No Hi – Showa Day

April 29th

Part of Golden Week, Showa Day takes place on April 29th. Once known as the Emperor’s Birthday, then Greenery Day (which is now May 4th), it commemorates the Showa Era (1926 – 1989).

Golden Week

April 29th – May 8th

Golden week combines four national holidays in Japan. May 3rd is Kenpo kinenbi (Constitution Day), and commemorates the new constitution which was put in place in 1947. May 4th is Midori no hi (Greenery Day), which celebrates nature and the environment. Kodomo no Hi (Children’s Day) is the last Golden Week holiday, and families pray for their son’s health and future success.

Summer Solstice

June 20th – 21st

It’s not an official national holiday, but chances are you can find a celebration to attend. The summer solstice recognizes the longest day of the year—a tradition honored in Japan and around the world.

Umi no Hi (Marine Day / Ocean Day)

Third Monday in July

Ocean Day is a holiday to give thanks for the ocean’s bounty and its importance to Japan as an Island nation.

Mountain Day

August 11th

Mountain Day will become an official holiday on August 11th, 2016. It will not only give people a day off from work, but also will provide an opportunity to appreciate and study the benefits of mountains.

Keiro no Hi (Respect-for-the-Aged Day)

Third Monday in September

This holiday is all about celebrating and showing respect for elderly people in the community, and expressing gratitude for their contributions.

Taiku no Hi (Health and Sports Day)

Second Monday in October

Health and Sports Day is a national holiday that commemorates the opening of the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo. The holiday also encourages a healthy and active lifestyle.

Kinrō Kansha no Hi (Labor Thanksgiving Day)

November 23rd

As the name implies, Japan’s Thanksgiving celebrates workers, and honors the labor and production in the country.

Tennō Tanjōbi (The Emperor’s Birthday)

December 23rd

The emperor’s birthday is always a national holiday in Japan. Akihito, the current Japanese emperor, was born on December 23rd, so the holiday coincides with his birthday.

japanese holidays

As you take Japanese lessons, learn as much as you can about these special Japanese holidays. Learning about holidays and traditions makes learning Japanese that much more fun!

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Photo by David Chau

facts about japan

Bet You Didn’t Know: 45 Fun Facts About Japan [In Pictures]

facts about japanEvery culture has its own set of perks, quirks, and interesting facts, and Japan is no exception.

So whether you’re planning a trip, taking language lessons, or you just want to learn some facts about Japan, check out this fun, interactive slideshow.

From facts about food to the lifestyle and the land, here are 45 things you probably didn’t know about Japan.

 



 

Now that you’ve learned some interesting facts about Japan, is there anything you found shocking or surprising? Let us know in the comments below!

 

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Halloween in Japan

Get in the Spirit: Celebrate Halloween in Japan

Halloween in Japan

Have you ever wondered how other cultures celebrate your favorite haunted holiday? Here, Japanese teacher Taro T. explains how Japanese people get in the spirit and add their own twist to Halloween…

Japan may be far away from the United States where Halloween is widely celebrated, but wearing costumes has become a tradition in Japan. In the land of anime and video games, wearing costumes, or cosplay, has been a part of Japanese sub-culture for decades.

Despite the increased popularity of Halloween in Japan (ハロウィーン), in the past, dressing up in costume usually meant attending cosplay conventions. Tens of thousands of people attend such events every year. This part of Japanese culture has also become popular in Western countries. In fact, in 2014, over 33,000 people attended Otakon, a cosplay event in Baltimore, Maryland.

Thanks to the cosplay culture, Halloween has become increasingly popular in Japan as young people continue to embrace American culture. Last year in the Shibuya District in Tokyo, throngs of people took to the streets to celebrate Halloween in Japan.

If you happen to be in Tokyo on Halloween, you’ll be impressed by the costumes and makeup. When I first experienced Halloween, in high school in the U.S., I remember seeing a kid dressed as Bob Marley. I was amazed by the work kids put into their costumes. In Japan, you’ll see the same type of elaborate, high-quality costumes.

The obsession with Halloween in Japan may also be due to Obon, a period in August in which Japanese people celebrate their ancestors’ spirits. It’s an annual Buddhist holiday where people visit their relatives and honor their ancestors.

A yurei is a karmic ghost that’s associated with Obon and Halloween in Japan. A yurei is terrifying, like something you would see in a horror movie.

On the other hand, an obake is a cute, anime-like ghost which is also associated with Obon and Halloween in Japan. For Japanese people, Halloween is a time to have fun and show off their costumes.

In addition, Halloween in Japan is very marketable. Businesses take advantage of the opportunity to sell candy, costumes, and Halloween-related goods. Growing up in Japan as a kid, I remember getting candies that came in a Jack-o’-lantern case. My mother put the case by the front door, and I would avoid passing that area at night because I was afraid of the Jack-o’-lantern.

Halloween may be a relatively new holiday in Japan, but Japanese people love to put their own twist on this American tradition. If you have a chance to visit Japan on Halloween, I’m sure you’ll have just as much fun as the locals.

Here are some Japanese vocabulary  words to help you get in the spirit… ハッピーハロウィン (happy Halloween)!

 

halloween in Japan


 

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Taro TPost Author: Taro T.
Taro T. teaches Japanese and ESL in Washington, D.C. He is a language acquisition specialist and mentors students from the United States, Thailand, Italy, Korea, Turkey, and El Salvador. Born and raised in Japan, Taro came to the United States when he was 16 to learn English and American culture. He gained fluency in both English and Spanish. Learn more about Taro here!

Photo by Hideya HAMANO

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Japanese martial arts

The Ultimate Guide to Japanese Martial Arts

Japanese martial arts

There’s no better way to learn Japanese than exploring important aspects of the culture. Martial arts play a significant role in both Japanese history and Japanese culture.

So whether you’re taking Japanese lessons or you’re interested in learning martial arts, here is your guide to the most popular Japanese fighting styles.

Sumo

Japanese martial arts

Photo by T toes

Sumo is Japan’s national sport. The rules are simple: each rikishi (wrestler) tries to push his opponent out of the elevated, clay dohyo (ring).

A sumo match ends when a wrestler steps out of the ring, or touches the ground with anything other than the soles of his feet. Matches usually take just a few seconds, but can last up to a minute or longer.

Unlike American wrestling, there are no weight classes in sumo, so a smaller wrestler could find himself face to face with a much larger opponent.

There are six annual 15-day sumo tournaments in Japan. Higher-ranked wrestlers will compete in one match per day during the tournament. At the end of each tournament, the wrestlers receive an updated ranking based on their record. The ranking system consists of six classifications: Makuuchi (top division), Juryo (2nd division), Makushita (third division), Sandanme (4th division), Jonidan (fifth division), and Jonokuchi (6th division). Yokozuna (grand champion) is the highest level a sumo can achieve.

Sumo has roots in the Shinto religion, and some of the original rituals remain today, like purifying the ring with salt. Sumo wrestlers must live and train in a heya (sumo training stable) and adhere to strict rules that dictate when they sleep, what they eat, and how they dress.

Judo

Japanese martial arts

Photo courtesy judoinfo.com

Judo is a modern martial art and Olympic sport created by Jigoro Kano in 1882. Judo translates to “the gentle way,” and the sport is a combination of jujitsu and wrestling.

Judo does not involve punching, kicking, or striking. Instead, participants use throws to take an opponent to the ground.
Kata (pre-arranged movement) is part of Judo and many other Japanese martial arts. Because the opponent knows the moves, kata also allows hitting, kicking, and the use of weapons, but these movements are not permitted in competition and free practice.

Karate

Japanese martial arts

Photo by David Vega

Karate translates literally to “open or empty hand” which is fitting since it was developed during a time when a ban was placed on weapons. The three basic movements in karate are thrusts, kicks, and arm strikes.

There are several theories about the history of karate, but many of them are difficult to verify. While karate was developed initially as a method of self-defense, participants also learn and practice Zen and Bushido principles in their search for spiritual enlightenment.

Karate is a blend of indigenous martial arts from the Ryukyu Islands (now Okinawa) and Chinese martial arts like, kenpo. A large number of karate styles are practiced in Japan and across the world, differing from one another in fighting technique and kata.

Kendo

In kendo (the way of the sword), opponents use shinai (bamboo sowrds) and wear bogu (protective armor) that covers the face, chest, and arms. Participants must master techniques and timing to strike an opponent and score a point.

Like other Japanese martial arts, kendo is about much more than just the physical fighting. Kendo participants seek physical and mental strength along with spiritual enlightenment.

According to the Southern California Kendo Organization, “the concept of kendo is to discipline the human character through the application of the principles of the Katana (sword).”

Iaido

Another form of Japanese sword fighting, iaido is the art of drawing and attacking with a sword. Unlike kendo, iaido is mainly practiced solo using a series of movements called waza. A participant uses techniques and movements against an imaginary opponent, and there is more focus on striking from the draw.

Iaido practitioners develop not only their technique and physical strength, but also their mental capacity. There is no direct sparring in iaido, but partner practice is permitted with a bokuto (wooden sword).

Hayashizaki Jinsuke Minamoto Shigenobu, who lived in Japan from 1546 to 1621, is credited with creating iaido. Almost 100 years prior, however, Lizasa Lenao developed iaijutsu, the precursor to iaido.

japanese martial arts

 

Japanese martial arts aren’t simply physical activities, but means of seeking spiritual enlightenment. Which martial arts form would you like to try? Let us know in the comments below!

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japanese etiquette

Japanese Etiquette: How to Be a Polite House Guest

japanese etiquette

Every culture has its own set of social graces, and following rules and minding your manners can prevent awkward encounters. So whether you’re taking Japanese lessons or you’re just interested in other cultures, learn essential Japanese etiquette with Montgomery, TX teacher Emily G…

There are some specific cultural rules you should keep in mind when you visit a Japanese person’s home. Japanese etiquette is incredibly important, unfortunately it’s not always as intuitive as you might think.

I learned about etiquette from my sensei who taught me Japanese. At the end of each semester, he would host a party and ask us to pretend it was a house visit. We weren’t permitted to enter the room and join the party until we performed every aspect of etiquette.

To help you get your house-call manners just right, here’s a quick run-down of the two most important things you should know when you visit a Japanese home.

The Way of the Genkan

The genkan is a small area just inside the front door. Sometimes it’s clearly defined because it’s lower than the floor in the rest of the house, which makes a person step to enter the house, but this is not always the case. Assume that the area immediately inside the door is the genkan, even if it doesn’t look different from the rest of the house. Leave all of your outdoor gear like your coat, umbrella, and shoes here. These items do not belong in the house.
Japanese people are very particular about keeping the genkan orderly. When you take off your shoes, keep them together and place them soles down. Remember, outdoor shoes are dirty. The genkan, by extension, is also considered dirty no matter how clean it may look, so face the interior of the house when you remove your shoes. This way, you can step out of your shoes and into the house without your clean feet or socks ever touching the dirty genkan. Your host or hostess may even give you house slippers to wear inside. Don’t worry if they don’t fit, they rarely do, you can simply shuffle around in them.

Finally, place your shoes to the side of the genkan area, to prevent people from tripping. When you move your shoes, only touch the inside and the top (the cleaner parts) and turn them to point toward the door. If you do this right, your host will not have to touch your shoes. When you’re ready to leave, simply step into your shoes.

The Way of the Omiyage

An omiyage is a type of gift or souvenir you bring to friends or family after a trip. When it comes to house visits, however, you should also bring an omiyage because you never want to show up empty handed.

You can bring a small snack or some drinks. Keep in mind that whatever you bring should be easy for people to share. Follow these three steps when you give your omiyage to your host or hostess:

  1. Hold your omiyage with both hands. The Japanese consider it lazy and improper to hand someone something with just one hand.
  2. Bow as you offer your omiyage to your host or hostess. When you bow, don’t look at the host, turn your face down toward the floor. You will look silly (like a turtle) if you continue to stare at the host as you bow.
  3. As you present your omiyage, offer a short, humble phrase. For example, my sensei taught me this phrase: “tsumaranai mono desu ga…” The sentence trails off, as many humble Japanese sentences do, and means something like, “this is just a boring little thing, but…..”. Your host or hostess should take your gift with both hands, bow, thank you for the item, and invite you in to his or her home.

Now that you know about the genkan and omiyage you’re ready to enjoy a house visit with a Japanese family. If you really want to impress your hosts, learn some Japanese mealtime etiquette. Armed with the basics, you can relax and enjoy some good food and good company!


Emily GPost Author:
 Emily G.
Emily G. teaches Japanese, Latin, and Greek lessons in Montgomery, TX. She earned her Bachelor’s degree in Classics from Texas A&M University and later went on to receive her Master’s Degree in Ancient History from the University of Nottingham. She has been teaching since 2009. Learn more about Emily here!

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Photo by Robert Douglass

animals in Japanese

QUIZ: Which Japanese Animal Are You?

There are certain animals that are significant in Japanese culture and history. Some animals are feared because of their supernatural powers, while others are loved and trusted by the Japanese people.

So whether you’re taking Japanese lessons or you’re just an animal lover, learn some vocabulary and find out if you’re a friend or foe with this quiz!

 

[playbuzz-item url=”//www.playbuzz.com/takelessons12/a-which-japanese-animal-are-you”]
Learn how to say more animals in Japanese with this infographic!

 

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animals in Japanese

Japanese Vocabulary: 10 Animals in Japanese

animals in Japanese

If you’re taking Japanese lessons, you’ve probably learned the basics like greetings and phrases. So, let’s get into some fun Japanese vocabulary. Here, Brighton, MA Japanese teacher Kaoru N. teaches you the names for common animals in Japanese…

1. Inu – 犬 / 狗  – Dog

Humans and dogs have a special bond, and just like in the rest of the world, dogs are important animals in Japanese.

There are two kanji letters for “dog,” but the second one is less common, and only used when it’s part of a word, for example: “走狗”,“天狗,” (running dog).

The left part of the second kanji is called kemono-hen, the (beast-hen). In general, “hen” is the left part of the kanji, which indicates what the kanji is related to. If a kanji has this (hen) part, it most likely stands for some kind of animal or beast.

2. Neko – 猫 – Cat

Writing “cat” is a bit more complicated than writing “dog” in Japanese. Notice this kanji also contains the “beast-hen.”

3. Saru – 猿 –  Monkey

There are a lot of Japanese legends and idioms about monkeys, they’re important animals in the Japanese culture.

In some Japanese hot springs, you can bathe with wild monkeys. If you go sightseeing in Nikko, you will see lots of monkeys in the streets. Make sure to hide your plastic bags from the monkeys in Nikko. The monkeys know plastic bags usually contain food, and they will attack you and try to take your food!

A law protects the monkeys, so you cannot harm them. In some cases, monkeys are smart and friendly; in other cases, they can be sly and mean.

4. Kitsune – 狐 –  Fox

In Japan, the fox is treated both as a monster and a god. According to Japanese superstition, these animals have supernatural powers and can play tricks on humans.

Because of these supernatural abilities, Japanese people generally respect and fear animals that dwell in the wild. A fox represents these mountain-dwelling animals. There are still a lot of fox shrines all over Japan.

5. Tanuki – 狸 – Raccoon

A raccoon is another wild, mountain-dwelling creature. There is a Japanese expression about these kinds of “monstrous” animals: “狐狸の類い” (kori no tagui),which means “a kind of fox and raccoon.”

6. Kuma – 熊 –  Bear

Bears aren’t supernatural, but they’re still dangerous. Several people are killed by bear attacks each year. Sometimes,  bears visit human-inhabited areas in search of food. If you go to the mountains in Japan, watch out for bears.

7. Sika – 鹿 –  Deer

Deer live deep in the mountains in Japan. But In Nara, you can see deer everywhere.

Deer are a nationally-protected species, so you can’t harm them, even though they can potentially hurt you. Just like monkeys, they’re cute but dangerous.

8. Tori – 鳥 / 鶏 – Bird / Chicken

There are two different kanji for this animal, and they’re pronounced exactly the same. The kanji on the left means “bird,” but the kanji on the right refers to a chicken or a rooster.

9. Ushi – 牛 – Cow / Bull

Cows are important animals in Japan, especially as agricultural resources. Not only are cows useful for meat and milk, in the past, ushi-kai (cow shepherds) used cows to till the land and carry heavy supplies.

10. Uma – 馬 – Horse

You can’t talk about a cow without mentioning a horse, of course. For military and agricultural purposes, horses are just as important as cows.

Surprisingly, in Japan, we even incorporate horse meat in meals. In fact, a horse sashimi plate is a very common food item. Not quite ready to try horse sashimi? Here’s a guide to some more conventional sushi!

Here’s a chart to help you learn the animals in Japanese.

animals in Japanese

 


Now that you know how to say common animal names in Japanese, find out which Japanese animal you are in this fun quiz

 

Kaoru N.Post Author: Kaoru N.
Kaoru teaches Japanese, guitar, and classical guitar lessons in Brighton, MA. Originally from Tokyo, he graduated from Berklee College of Music with a dual major, and is available for in-home, in-studio, and online lessons. Learn more about Kaoru here!

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japanese speaking skills

Practice Japanese: 4 Ways to Boost Your Speaking Skills

Japanese speaking

Learning Japanese isn’t just about studying textbooks and memorizing vocabulary. Here, Montgomery, TX Japanese teacher Emily G. shares her tips to help you improve your Japanese speaking skills… 

If you’re learning Japanese, chances are you plan to use it. You want to be able to read, watch anime without subtitles, or get out there and converse with Japanese people! Sometimes textbooks, useful as they are, just aren’t the best way to apply your Japanese-language skills. Here are some ways you can get out of your textbook, move beyond the classroom, and put your new language skills to good use.

1. Immersion

Immersion is just a fancy word for really getting involved and surrounding yourself with the language, culture, and native media. The key here is to enjoy yourself. Whether you like J-Pop or anime, comedy or game shows, crazy Japanese advertisements or dramas, find something that allows you to hear nothing but Japanese, spoken with native fluency, for at least 30 minutes each day.
If you can, designate a specific time of day, such as right before class or even right before bed. Personally, I like to watch anime right before bed, and I have lots of crazy stories about waking up speaking Japanese instead of English!

2. Talk to Yourself

Talking to yourself may make you feel crazy, but it’s an excellent way to practice your Japanese. It may not help you prepare perfectly for real conversations, but it will definitely help you get one step closer.

Once you’ve been doing this for a while, kick it up a notch and start talking to your pets, or even inanimate objects, in Japanese. This may sound weird but it’s an excellent suggestion. I ask my students, for example, when they learn how to make requests, to ask their pets to do things. Ask your dog to sit or fetch in Japanese. He probably won’t . . . but it’s good practice for you.

3. Ask, Ask, Ask Questions

The absolute best way to prepare to use Japanese outside of the classroom is to ask your teacher a lot of questions. A good teacher will do his or her best to prepare you for real-life situations, but students who come prepared with questions, will learn more and be able to use the language more effectively.
I find that my students are better at conversing when they ask me “how do I say this?” and “I heard this word while watching anime; can you tell me how to use it?” My best students, however, will tell me, “I have a question, and I’d like you to teach me to ask my question in Japanese.” You’ll improve so much faster if you take the initiative to learn new things, and your teacher will love it, too!

4. Remember, It’s Natural to Be Nervous

Many students feel nervous or anxious about speaking a new language. While this is normal, it can hold you back both from improving and enjoying the language you’ve put so much work into learning. Even I get nervous sometimes when I talk to people, but what has always helped me to get the ball rolling is preparation. You can’t prepare specifically for every conversation, but you can prepare for the beginning of the exchange.

Just like a sales pitch, prepare and practice how you will start a conversation. It’s a lot easier to keep a conversation going once it’s started, so make it easier on yourself.

Try some or all of these things and watch your Japanese speaking skills improve. I hope these tips help you use and enjoy the Japanese language

If you have questions, ask your Japanese teacher for help, and share your experience in the comments below! 


Emily GPost Author:
 Emily G.
Emily G. teaches Japanese, Latin, and Greek lessons in Montgomery, TX. She earned her Bachelor’s degree in Classics from Texas A&M University and later went on to receive her Master’s Degree in Ancient History from the University of Nottingham. She has been teaching since 2009. Learn more about Emily here!

Photo by humbletree

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japanese adjectives

Learn Japanese Grammar: How to Use Japanese Adjectives

japanese adjectives

Verbs and nouns are vital to form a sentence, but if you want to add some color, you also need adjectives. Here, Ann Arbor, MI teacher Elaina R. shows you how to use Japanese adjectives…

Adjectives are descriptive words.

The stove is hot.

The blue sky turned black.

I am confused.

We use tons of adjectives in our everyday speech. If you’re learning Japanese, learning to use adjectives is a must. Luckily, using adjectives in Japanese is pretty darn easy.

There are only two main types of Japanese adjectives, and they act very similar to English adjectives.

“I” – Adjectives

These adjectives end with (you guessed it) the letter “i”.

You can use them exactly like adjectives in English:

  • kawaii (かわいい)-  cute
  • kawaii neko (かわいい猫) –  cute cat

Here’s another example:

  • yasui(やすい) –  cheap
  • yasui yōfuku (安い洋服) –  cheap clothes

“Na”- Adjectives

“Na” – adjectives end with pretty much anything except for “i,” for example, hen is a Japanese adjective that means “weird”.

There is one exception: adjectives that end in -ei (えい)are “na” – adjectives, not “i” – adjectives.

How are “na” – adjectives constructed differently? You have to add – na after the adjective to connect it to the rest of the sentence:

kirei (きれい)-  pretty OR clean
kirei na yama (きれいな山) – pretty mountain

Here’s another example:

shizuka (静か)- quiet
shizuka na hito (静かな人)- quiet person

Using Japanese Adjectives

Exclamations

Using adjectives in present tense is very easy in Japanese. For exclamations, you can just use the simple conjugations that we learned above.

kawaii neko! (かわいい猫!) – “What a cute cat!”
yasui yōfuku! (安い洋服!) – “What cheap clothes!”

Sometimes, just one word will suffice:

kirei! (きれい!) – “It’s so pretty!”

Sentences

When you’re not so overwhelmed with emotion that you need exclamations, use a normal sentence.

All you have to do is tack the right ending onto the noun.

Japanese adjectives

Predicative Adjectives

Predicative adjectives go at the end of the sentence:

That’s a cute cat (attributive adjective)
The cat is cute (predicative adjective)

Creating a sentence like this in Japanese is pretty easy. All you have to do is add the verb “is,” which in this case is “ga” (が).

japanese adjectives

Sorry, Not An Adjective

Are you wondering how to say “I’m hungry” or “I’m thirsty”? In Japanese, we say “my stomach is empty” rather than “I’m hungry.” There’s no single adjective that means “hungry,” and the same goes for “thirsty.”

onaka suita (お腹空いた) – (stomach empty)  –  “I am hungry”
nodo kawaita (喉乾いた) –  (throat dry) –  “I am thirsty”

Remember, too, that Japanese sentences don’t require a subject. So the same sentence can mean a lot of different things, which is very convenient for Japanese language learners.

japanese adjectives

Fun, Descriptive, Hungry Adjectives

Adjectives lend lots of color and personality to speech. By using adjectives in Japanese, you can take your language skills to the next level.

Memorize some common adjectives and ask your Japanese teacher for extra help, if you need it. Before you know it, you’ll be an expert on Japanese adjectives!

Japanese adjectives

Elaina RPost Author: Elaina R.
Elaina R. teaches singing in Ann Arbor, MI. She is acquainted with many languages and speaks English, Japanese, Italian, and German. She earned a Bachelor of Music from the University of Southern California, and she is currently working on her Master of Music from the University of Michigan. Learn more about Elaina here!

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